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新托福考试阅读新老题型大起底

http://en.jybest.cn  智课网    2016-05-13    

 

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  新托福阅读考试中偶尔会出现的“新题型”往往会令许多考生感到茫然和恐慌,不过新托福考试名师认为大家对“新题型”完全没必要害怕,下面名师就将给我们详细分析新托福阅读考试OG中没出现的各种“新题型”。

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  其实这些新题型并不是进入2009年,2010年以或者是2011年新出现的题型。这些题型其实是新托福考试自从诞生之日起,就已经出现了的题型,但是由于ETS的官方指南一直没有将这部分题型列入其中,因此是等到“新托福突破口——TPO”出现之后,才慢慢被人们知晓的,在这之前,只有传言,但是都是捕风捉影。话不多说,妙文开始!

  新托福考试OG列出了阅读的10种题型:

  1. Factual information questions (纯粹细节)

  2. Negative factual information questions (否定细节)

  3. Inference questions (推理题)

  4. Rhetorical purpose questions (修辞目的题)

  5. Vocabulary questions (词汇题)

  6. Reference questions (指代题)

  7. Sentence simplification questions (句子简化题)

  8. Insert text question (句子插入题)

  9. Prose summary (内容摘要题)

  10. Fill in a table (表格归类题)

  但实际上,新托福考试阅读当中还考了一些OG中没列举出来的题目:

  一.段间关系概括题:这种题目要求考生概括出2个自然段间的逻辑关系。比如说《THE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION》这篇文章的第6题。

  6. Which of the following best describes the relationship between Paragraph2 and Paragraph3?

  ?Paragraph2 puts forward several scientific claims, one of which is rejected in Paragraph3

  ?Paragraph2 poses several questions, and Paragraph3offers a possible answer to one of them

  ?Paragraph2 presents outdated traditional views, while Paragraph3presents the current scientific conclusions.

  ?Paragraph2 introduces a generalization that is illustrated by specific examples in Paragraph3

  二.修辞手法题:这种题目是修辞目的的变体。OG中大多数题目只考察一个词组的修辞目的,而实际考试会对一句话甚至整段话的修辞目的进行考察。一个是考修辞对象,一个是考修辞的手段。比如说,《Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction》这篇文章第2题:

  2. In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared?

  ○To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous is the best-documented of the dozen or so mass extinctions in the geological record

  ○To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous

  ○To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous

  ○To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster

  三.段落结构题:这里题目考查的是文章段落的构架,可以算是新题型。比如:《THE ORIGINS OF THEATER》这篇文章的第9题,

  9. Which of the following best describes the organization of paragraph 5?

  ○The author presents two theories for a historical phenomenon.

  ○The author argues against theories expressed earlier in the passage.

  ○The author argues for replacing older theories with a new one.

  ○The author points out problems with two popular theories.

  四. 段落主题题:这种题目考查的是整个段落的主题,可以说是老托福段落主题题的延续:

  比如《Petroleum Resources》这篇文章的12题:

  12.In paragraph 6, the author’s primary purpose is to

  ○Provide examples of how oil exploration can endanger the environment

  ○Describe accidents that have occurred when oil activities were in progress

  ○Give an analysis of the effects of oil spills on the environment

  ○Explain how technology and legislation help reduce oil spills

  五. 双选题:其实不仅仅在听力考试之中有双选题,阅读考试之中也是有双选题的,只是ETS有可能觉得这点并不重要,因此没有通知偶们,例子请见:《The Geologic History of the Mediterranean》这篇文章第5题。

  5. Select the TWO answer choice from paragraph 3 that identify materials discovered in the deepest part of the Mediterranean basin. To receive credit you must select TWO answers.

  ○Volcanic rock fragments.

  ○This silt layers

  ○Soft, deep-sea mud

  ○Crystalline salt

  以及《THE RISE OF TEOTIHUACAN》这篇文章第11题:

  11. Select the TWO answer choices that are mentioned in paragraph 5 as being features of Teotihuacán that may have attracted immigrants to the city. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

  ○The prosperity of the elite

  ○Plenty of available housing

  ○Opportunities for well-paid agricultural employment

  ○The presence of one or more religious shrines

  除此以外,OG对于新托福考试阅读题型的呈现方法也与真实考试有一定距离,如:

  一.细节题的阅读跨度:OG中大多数题目只考一段,但是实际考试会有一道题目考2段、甚至是3段的情况。比如《GROUNDWATER》这篇文章的第10题:

  10. According to paragraphs 6 and 7, why is basalt unlike most crystalline forms of rock?

  ○It is unusually solid

  ○It often has high porosity.

  ○It has a low proportion of empty space.

  ○It is highly permeable.

  二.句子改写题的句子复杂性:真实考题比OG中的句子改写题要长很多,而且逻辑关系也更复杂。

  三.指代题:OG指代题考得不少,真实考试指代题考得很少。

  四.选项长度:真题的选项长度长很多。

  五.细节题题干关键字没有在原文直接给出。这让考生定位细节难度大幅度增加。不过说句公道话,其实在老托福考试就已经这样了,并不是在新托福考试之中独有的。比如《Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer》这篇文章的第11题。

  11.Paragraph 5 mentions which of the following as a source of difficulty for some farmers who try to conserve water?

  ○Crops that do not need much water are difficult to grow in the High Plains.

  ○Farmers who grow crops that need a lot of water make higher profits.

  ○Irrigating less frequently often leads to crop failure.

  ○Few farmers are convinced that the aquifer will eventually run dry.

  六. 文章的复杂程度:这个也不用说了,OG的文章结构性非常明显,就好像看CCAV的新闻联播一样;真实考试的文章结构纠结多了,就好像看本届世界杯一样。比如:《The Long-Term Stability of Ecosystems》和《Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coast》这两篇文章。

  新托福考试阅读部分其实并不存在真的所谓“新题型”,这些题型也是有规律可循的,考生们在备考时多加注意就没什么值得害怕的。

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