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托福阅读: 句子简化题解题步骤

http://en.jybest.cn  小马过河    2015-09-24    

 

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  托福阅读句子简化题解题步骤:

  1、找原句逻辑:

  找逻辑连接词词,常见逻辑连接词:

  转折:but, however, yet, nevertheless

  让步:although,though,even though, despite,in spite of

  比较对比:more/less than, as…as , while, whereas, unlike

  条件:if, only if, except, unless, provide that, as long as

  因果: because (of) ,since, as, why, for, therefore, hence, thus, consequently, lead to, as a result (of),result in, result from, reason, A contribute to B, attribute/ascribe A to B, explain, come from, so A that B,A be responsible for B

  2、找原句主干:

  谁做什么,谁是什么 (一般删掉修饰语:定语从句,介词短语结构,时间地点状语)。

  注意:若两个句子有对比关系,因为两个分句中被比较的事物本质可能都差不多,所以表修饰的定语从句才是关键,这时候定语时关键。

  3、对比选项选答案:

  排除有明显与主要信息矛盾的选项了,排除无中生有的逻辑。

  托福阅读句子简化题举例

  economically.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?

  Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Whigs were able to attract support only in the wealthiest parts of the economy because Democrats dominated in other areas.

  B. Whig and Democratic areas of influence were naturally split between urban and rural areas, respectively.

  C. The semi-subsistence farming areas dominated by Democrats became increasingly isolated by the Whigs' control of the market economy.

  D. The Democrats' power was greatest in poorer areas while the Whigs were strongest in those areas where the market was already fully operating.

  这句话的原句本身就比较简单,而且两分句由whereas连接存在着一定的对比。先找出原句的逻辑:Whigs—areas fully integrated into market economy[ whereas表转折]Demo—areas: farming, isolated, languishing

  再来看选项

  A:Whigs—only in wealthiest parts[ because] Demo—other areas, 这个选项不仅滥用了绝对词only,而且无中生有了不存在的因果关系,可以排除。

  B:Whig and Demo influence areas were naturally split. 原文并没有提,排除。

  C:Demo’s farming areas 愈发isolated←?(弱因果)Whig’s control.捏造了愈发isolated和因果关系,可以排除。

  D:Demo—areas: poorer[while表转折]Whig—areas: market was fully operating.这个选项和原文的逻辑基本相同,只是把两个分句的位置变了,所以这个可以选~

  再来看个TPO上的例子~(Cave art in Europe—TPO 4)

  Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A.Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that if they drew a human image in their cave art, it would cause death or injury.

  B.Many contemporary people believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury, so they, like Upper Paleolithic people, rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.

  C.If Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, this belief might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.

  D.Although many contemporary peoples believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury, researchers cannot explain why Upper Paleolithic people rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.

  这个句子读上去比上个例子稍微复杂一点,但是让我们来分析一下:

  [Upper Paleolithic believed that (drawing could cause death/Injury)] || [if so] —explain (弱因果)—[ why figures rarely depicted]

  是不是很清晰呢?然后来看一下各选项:

  A.UP believed that (if they drew…, it would cause death/injury).在第一次审查时候,它的逻辑与选项的前半部分比较吻合,先过关

  B. [contemporary people believed that (drawing cause death/injury)]—因果—they rarely depicted figures. 选项因为原文的定语like contemporary people而试图偷换主语,引出的结果自然也是不存在的~排除

  C. [If UP believed that (drawing could cause death/injury)] || this explains — [why figures rarely depicted].选项的逻辑和原句很吻合,先过关

  D. [Although contemporary people believe (drawing could cause death/injury)]—转折—[researchers can’t explain (why figures rarely depicted)].选项是一个转折关系复句,表达的逻辑也和原文有比较大的出入,排除

  选项中有两个在第一轮剩下,那么我们再看一遍原句,看一下之前缩句有没有忽略重要的程度副词,原句的前半个分句有一个perhaps,所以A选项中表达的句意只是有可能,并不准确,于是可以肯定的排除。其实从另一个角度说,在第一遍审查的时候,A选项只表达了原句一半的意思,而遗漏了后面重要的半句,因此并不能成为原句的替换,本是可以排除的。但是我在这里还是稍微保守了一点,看完所有选项,再从优选择~谨慎一点比较好呢~~

  以上就是托福阅读简化题的步骤,希望大家在处理这些句型的时候,能够按照以上给出的步骤,除此之外,以上我们给出的句型都是在托福阅读考试过程中,我们经常会遇到的问题,最后祝愿大家在即将到来的托福考试中能够取得优异的成绩。

 

 

 

 

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