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2015年5月9日托福考试听力真题回顾

http://en.jybest.cn  新东方在线    2015-05-14    

 

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  Conversation 1

  一个姑娘找教授咨询有关论文资料,说到silver对一些城市的影响,还有矿城的衰落等。

  -TPO部分对应参考 (论文科研 TPO13-C1/TPO17-C1)

  -TPO对应词汇

  科研过程

  Hypothesis

  Alternative hypothesis择一假说

  Null hypothesis无效假说, 零假说

  Collect data

  Survey, questionnaire

  Experiment

  Interfere, influence

  Observation

  Analyze data

  Interpret data

  Analysis

  Analytical

  Subject

  Sample

  Treatment group

  Non-treatment

  Control group

  Lecture 1

  New computerizing and old computerizing

  -TPO部分对应参考 (计算机科学类TPO21-L2)

  -参考背景

  Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes—e.g. through computers. Computing includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media. The field of computing includes computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.

  Lecture 2

  建筑学有关。讲了一个新型节能建筑。

  -TPO部分对应参考(建筑学类TPO11-L2/TPO13-L1)

  -参考背景

  Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the using of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. In other words, green building design involves finding the balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort.

  Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council.

  Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:

  · Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources

  · Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity

  · Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation

  A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Although some green building programs don't address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes, others do, especially through public schemes for energy efficient refurbishment. Green construction principles can easily be applied to retrofit work as well as new construction.

  Conversation 2

  学生职业规划跟找工作有关,提供的帮助等等。

  -TPO部分对应参考 (求职打工TPO6-C1/TPO18-C1)

  -TPO对应词汇

  校内工作,课外活动

  及寻找经济援助:

  Letter of reference/recommendation

  Competitive

  Benefit future career

  Field research

  Collect data for papers

  Waiter, waitress,Babysitter

  Work at the library

  Qualification资格, qualified 合格的

  Resume, CV

  financial aid经济援助

  Scholarship Fellowship

  Teaching assistantship 助教奖学金

  Research assistantship 研究奖学金

  Grant 助学金

  Loan 贷款

  Need-based以需求为基础

  Merit-based 以优秀为基础

  Student union 学生会

  Clubs 俱乐部

  Membership 成员资格

  Career service

  Lecture 3

  到欧洲中世纪人口sharp decrease原因,在中世纪之前Roman Empire统治世界,从庞贝遗迹之类的都能看出那时候人口是很多的,但是中世纪的时候人口骤降是为什么呢?一个原因是建造房子的材料,中世纪的时候是organic material容易decay腐烂,所以没有找到什么证据。后面讲到demographic distribution map有些地方是空白的。

  -TPO部分对应参考 (人类学类TPO7-L3/TPO22-L1)

  -参考背景

  Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages. It is an estimate of the number of people who were alive during the Medieval period, population trends, life expectancy, family structure, and related issues. In many ways, demography was one of the most crucial factors of historical change throughout the Middle Ages.

  The population of Europe was stable at a low level in the Early Middle Ages, boomed during the High Middle Ages, reached a stable peak from about 1250-1350, then a number of calamities caused a steep decline, the nature of which historians have debated. Population levels then slowly expanded, gaining momentum in the early 16th century.

  The science of medieval demography relies on various lines of evidence, such as administrative records, wills and other types of records, archaeological field data, economic data, and written histories. Because the data are often incomplete and/or ambiguous, there can be significant disagreement among medieval demographers.

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