中国教育在线 中国教育网 加入收藏 设为首页

2014职称英语《卫生A》真题及答案:完型填空

http://en.eol.cn  来源:  作者:考试吧  2014-04-02    

 

  特别提醒:科学填报志愿比取得好成绩更加重要。考试结束了,尽快估分选大学、确定志愿吧。请点击这里,帮你解决!

  中国教育在线讯 2014年职称英语考试于3月29日举行,中国教育在线外语栏目职称英语频道将第一时间发布2014年职称英语考试真题及答案,敬请考生关注!

  More about Alzheimer's Disease

  Scientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease1 and may ultimately allow physicians to predict who is at risk of getting this neurological disorder.

  ' The only current means of diagnosing the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia.

  “ Since Alois Alzheimer described the disease nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to accurately diagnose it in its early stages2,” said Patricia Grady,acting director3 of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Maryland. "This discovery, if confirmed, could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease. ”

  Alzheimer's is the single greatest cause of mental deterioration in older people, affecting between 2. 5 million and 4 million people in the United States alone. The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.6 There is currently no known treatment for the disease.

  Researches discovered that the skin cells of Alzheimer' s patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium in and out of the cells. The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that7 Alzheimer's results from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects affect the cells in the brain, scientists said.

  The flow of potassium is especially critical in cells responsible for memory formation8. The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells' supply of calcium, another critical element.

  One test developed by researches calls for9 growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that govern the flow of potassium are open. Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.

  A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important development, but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing.10

  词汇:

  neurological /inju9r9'lDd3ik9l/ adj.神经病 学的

  dementia /di丨menjis/ n.痴呆 deterioration /d^tiom'reijan/ n.恶化,退化 devastating /'devosteitiB/ adj.破坏‘性极大

  的,毁灭性的 defect /'diifekt,di'fekt / n.缺损,毛病 physiological / 丨fizio 丨lt)d3ikal/ adj.生理的; 生理学的 potassium /ps'taesiom/ n.钟

  formation /fo: 'meijsn/ n.形成,组成

  calcium /'kaelsism/ n.考丐

  microscopic / 丨maikrs丨skDpik / adj.极小的,

  微小的 一

  signature /'signitj9(r) / n. i只另!J标志;署名,

  签名,签字 validity /vs'lidsti/ n.效力,有效(性)

  注释:

  1. to identify people with Alzheimer's disease ; 老性痴呆

  识别患早老性痴呆的人;Alzheimer's disease:早

  2. in its early stages:在它的早期阶段

  3. acting director:执行主任

  4. the singly greatest cause:唯一的重要原因

  5. in the United States alone:仅在美国

  6. The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function, and eventually causes death.这种毁灭性的疾病逐渐破坏记忆和行动的能力,最终导致死亡。

  7. The fact that... suggests that...:事实表明 ,

  8. cells responsible for memory formation :对记忆的形成至关重要的细胞

  9. call for:要求

  10. ... but cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing. 但提

  醒人们其他有关早老性痴呆症的试验曾经也颇有吸引力,结果却令人失望。

  词汇:

  impairment /jim'peQmsnt/ n.损伤 community /ko'mjuiniti/ n.社区,社会 magnifier/’maegnifai3(r) / ti.方夂大镜 cane /kein/ n.手杖,藤 Braille /breil/ n.盲文

  译文:

  早老性痴呆研究的新进展

  科学家们发现,采用皮肤化验的方法可以判断病人是否患有早老性痴呆症,并且最终有助于医 生预测哪些人有患上这种神经功能紊乱性疾病的危险。

  要诊断一个病人是否患有这类疾病,目前唯一的方法是进行一系列长期而昂贵的测试,以排除 导致痴呆的其他病因。

  “自从艾洛伊斯?阿尔茨海默记载了这一病症以后,近一百年来人们一直在努力寻找能够在早 期阶段就精确地诊断出这种疾病的方法,”马里兰州贝色斯达神经紊乱与中风国家研究院执行主任 Patricia Grady如是说。“这个发现如果得到证实,将会意味着我们在治疗和了解这种病症方面前进 了一大步。”

  早老性痴呆是导致老年人大脑功能退化的唯一的重要原因。仅在美国,就有约250万到400万 人患有这种疾病。这种毁灭性的疾病会逐渐破坏记忆和行动的能力,并最终导致死亡。目前仍然没 有办法治愈这种病症。

  研究者发现早老性痴呆症患者的皮肤细胞有缺损。这种缺损会影响人体对出入于细胞的钾的 流量的调控。科学家认为皮肤细胞有缺损这个事实表明,早老性痴呆是由人体全身的生理变化引起 的,并且大脑细胞受损带来的变化所产生的最为明显的后果就是痴呆。

  钾的流量对于与记忆密切相关的'细胞至关重要。科学家还发现还有两种细胞的缺损会影响细 胞中钙的含量。钙也是一种关键的元素。

  研究者进行的皮肤测试中有一种要求在实验室环境中培养皮肤细胞,然后使用检电器进行测 试,检查输送钾的极微小管道是否畅通。如果畅通无阻,这些管道会放出一种特殊的电子信号。

  早老性痴呆研究协会的一名发言人说,这种诊断性测试如果得到证实,将是一个重要的进步,但 同时提醒人们其他有关早老性痴呆症的试验曾经也颇有吸引力,然而结果却令人失望。

如有相关问题,可拨打免费咨询热线:010-58443520

考试培训小助手

本科留学qq:436560382

研究生留学qq:437946603

免责声明:

① 凡本站注明“稿件来源:中国教育在线”的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属本网所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式复制发表。已经本站协议授权的媒体、网站,在下载使用时必须注明“稿件来源:中国教育在线”,违者本站将依法追究责任。

② 本站注明稿件来源为其他媒体的文/图等稿件均为转载稿,本站转载出于非商业性的教育和科研之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其内容的真实性。如转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者在两周内速来电或来函联系。

外语电子周刊

推荐阅读
eol.cn简介 | 联系方式 | 网站声明 | 招聘信息 | 京ICP证140769号 | 京ICP备12045350号 | 京网文[2014]2106-306号 | 京公网安备 11010802020236号
版权所有 赛尔互联(北京)教育科技有限公司 CERNET Corporation
Mail to: webmaster@cernet.com