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成人学士学位英语考试语法大全:主谓一致

 1、定义:

  所谓“主谓一致”,就是指谓语在人称和数上必须受主语的人称和数的支配。这是英语和汉语在构句里的又一迥异之处。

  2、主谓一致的种类:

  ⑴ 语法形式上的一致主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词为复数形式。如:

  I often help him and he often helps me. 我经常帮助他,他经常帮助我。

  We often help each other and learn from each other. 我们经常互相帮助,互相学习。

  ⑵ 意义上的一致

  a.主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。如:

  The crowd were surrounding the government official. 人群包围住了这位政府官员。

  单数形式代表复数内容的词有:people, police, cattle等。如:

  The Chinese people are brave and hard-working. 中国人民勇敢而又勤劳。

  b.主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。news以及以ics结尾的学科名称(如:physics,politics,maths,economics等)。

  ⑶ 就近原则

  就近原则即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于靠近它的词语。

  a. 并列主语用连词or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接,谓语应同相邻的主语保持人称和数的一致。如:

  Not only the students but also the teacher enjoys listening to the music. 不仅学生而且这位老师也喜欢听这种音乐。

  Are either you or he wrong? 要么是你错,要么是他错吗?

  b. 在there be 表存在的句式中,主语是两个或多个名词(短语)的并列时,be 的形式与前边的一个名词(短语)一致。如:

  There is a pen, two knives and several books on the table=There are two knives, a pen and several books on the table.桌子上有一支钢笔、两把小刀和几本书。

  C. 副词或介词短语在句首的倒装句中,必须认准哪是主语。如:

  Between the two buildings stands a monument. 两幢楼之间耸立着一块纪念碑。

  On the ship were over 2,200 people. More than 1,500 people lost their lives. Among those was the young woman. 船上有2,2001人,1,500多人丧生,这位年轻妇女也在其中。

  难点释疑:

  名词作主语

  1、当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

  如:Two hours is enough for me to finish the work. 两小时对我来说完成这项工作足够了。

  Two hundred dollars gives Jack much help.两百美元帮了Jack大忙。

  2、如果主语有more than one… 或many a…构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍然用单数形式。

  如:More than one comrade has asked to stay. 不止一位同志已经要求留下。

  Many a passenger was killed in the accident. 许多乘客在这一次事故中丧生。

  但是“more+复数名词+than one”结构及“more than one hundred+复数名词”结构之后,谓语动词一般用复数形式。如:

  More members than one are against your plan. 不止一位成员反对你的计划。

  3、不定代词each, every, no所修饰的名词及each…and each…, every…and every…, no…and no…, many a…and many a…结构作主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。

  如:Every man and every woman is at work. 所有男的和女的都在工作。

  Many a desk and many a bench is to be taken out of the hall. 许多课桌和凳子将被搬出大厅。

  4、表示成双成套的名词,如:chopsticks(筷子), compasses, clothes, glasses, jeans, scissors, shoes, socks, trousers等,作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式;但如与a kind of, a pair of, the pair of, a series of 连用,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

  The trousers are in the drawer. 裤子在抽屉里。

  There is a pair of shoes under the bed. 有一双鞋在床下。

  The pair of shoes is rather expensive. 这双袜子很贵。

  5. 由连接词连接的名词作主语.

  1)、用and或both…and连接并列主语,表示不同概念,谓语动词常用复数。如:

  You and he both stand up. 你和他都站了起来。

  Water and air are both important. 和空气都很重要。

  Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不待人。

  但并列结构充当主语表示整体概念时,即指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数形式,这时and后面的名词没有冠词。英语中并列结构表示整体概念的有:

  2)表示兼职或有多个称呼的人。如:

  the worker and poet 这位工人兼诗人

  The writer and teacher is speaking at the meeting. 这位教师兼作家正在会上发言。

  6、当主语后面跟有as well as, along with, with, like, rather than, together with等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。如:

  Your father as well as you is very kind to me. 不仅你而且你的父亲对我都非常好。

  He, like you and Xiao Li, is very clever. 他象你和小李一样非常聪明。

  Mr Robbins, together with his wife and children, is leaving London for Paris. Robbins先生明天将和妻子和孩子离开伦敦去巴黎。

  D. 分数、量词作主语.

  1、“分数或百分数+of+名词”构成的短语及由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, half of, a heap of, heaps of +名词”构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词的数与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致。如:

  More than 70 percent of the surface of ouor planet is covered by water. 我们星球的表面百分之七十多都被水覆盖着。

  One third of the students are girls in our group. 我们队三分之一的学生是女生。

  2、a great deal of/ a large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,如:

  A great deal of rice was taken from the country to the city by railway. 很多大米通过铁路从乡下运往城市。

  3、a number of+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用复数:the number of+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:

  A number of students are going for a picnic this weekend. 这个周末许多学生将去野炊。

  The number of days in February this year is 28. 今年二月份的天数是二十八天。

  E. 名词化的形容词作主语“the+形容词(或过去分词或现在分词)”如:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the wounded, the injured, the unemployed, the dying, the living等结构担任主语表示一类人时,谓语动词常用复数形式,如:

  The young are more active than the old. 青年人比老年人积极。

  F. 动名词、不定式短语和从句作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

  To learn a foreign language is not so difficult as you think. 学一门外语并不象你想象的那么难。

  Smoking is bad for health. 吸烟有害健康。

  That he has won the game is known to us all. 他赢了这场比赛是我们众所周知的事。

  但what引导的主语从句所指的具体内容是复数意义时,谓语动词一般用复数形式。如:

  What we need is more time. 我们需要的是更多的时间。

  What we need are good teachers. 我们需要的是好老师。


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英语培训成人英语培训

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