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英语专业四级考试近义词辨析(4)

http://en.jybest.cn      2012-07-23    

 

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  中国教育在线讯    在学习专业英语词汇中,有时同义词的辨析是很不容易的,我们一般从三方面进行区分,即:语法、语义和文体。语法主要是词性、搭配、句式等的区分;语义主要是词义的本义、引申义、比喻义和内涵和外延等的区分;文体主要是正式和非正式、褒义和贬义等的区分。

  16.环境 形势

  (环境 形势) conditions: The location and other factors likely to affect it. It suggests something that has stayed the same for some time and which affects daily life such as food, work, and houses. We are now studying the economic conditions in the developing countries.

  (形势) situation: A position or state at a particular time, set of conditions, facts, and events having an effect on a person, society, etc. It suggests more general matters such as government planning and finance. The political situation in these countries are always changing.

  (环境 周围 外界) environment: The circumstances, things and conditions that influence you. It refers to spirit aspect, physical aspect and material aspect. We must try to beautify our environment.

  (形势 情况) circumstance(s): A situation or event around us, a certain kind of atmosphere, the conditions that affect what happens. in (under) the circumstances

  (环境 周围事物) surrounding(s): The area and environment around a place or person. It indicates a very narrow condition, "physically" sometimes reflects spiritual aspect. They lived in hostile surroundings.

  17.著名的

  well-known: (infl)

  famous: The most general one. widely known or honored.

  (杰出的 知名的) distinguished: Great, outstanding marked by excellent quality or deserved fame, used especially of people who are famous for serious work in science, the arts etc. He was a distinguished writer.

  (驰名的) celebrated: Famous, (substitute for renowned) It refers objectively to sb or something that has been give acclaim or honoured with awards or prizes. She was a celebrated actress.

  renowned: Highly honored and famous for something good. often refers to places or things, also It suggests something that has become legendary or is no longer available for an objective evaluation. Edison was renowned for his inventions.

  noted: Well-known and admired It often describes a more intellectual kind of effort and accomplishment indicating an authority or expert or their theories. Maybe it is not widely known to the general public. He was a very noted expert.

  (臭名昭著) notorious: Famous for something bad. He is notorious for his crimes.

  18.强盗

  thief: The most general one.

  (强盗) robber: It suggests a direct confrontation in which the owner is forced to give up his valuables.

  (行凶强劫) mugger: A person who attacks and robs people in a street or in a lift.

  burglar: A person who breaks into a house at night to steal something.

  (歹徒 暴徒) gangster: A member of a group of criminals, esp. those who are armed and use guns to threaten.

  (匪徒) bandit: an armed robber. It suggests an organized group in a rural setting.

  (土匪) brigand: A robber who lives by robbing travelers in the country.

  (海盗) pirate: A person who robs on the sea.

  19.摇动,颤动

  shake: The most general one. to move up and down or back and forth. It refers to persons or things.

  (发抖) quiver: To tremble a little. It suggests a rapid but invisible vibration. His lips quivered with emotion.

  (颤抖) tremble: To shake uncontrollably and slightly as from fear, cold, excitement etc. It implies uneasiness and nervousness. Her voice trembled as she began to sing.

  (瞬间发抖) shiver: To tremble from fear or cold. It suggests a slight and rapid movement. He stood shivering in the snow.

  (极度颤动) quake: to shake or tremble violently. It suggests a more violent and sudden change. He quaked with excitement. An explosion cam make the ground quake.

  (抽筋般颤动) shudder: To shake uncontrollably for a movement. It suggests a more intense shaking. She shuddered at the sight of a snake.

  20.说话 谈话

  (说话) speak: To use your voice to say words.

  (说) say: To speak words.

  (发出声音) utter: To make sound and say words.

  drawl: To speak in a slow, prolonged manner.

  mutter: To express displeasure with compressed lips.

  rave: To talk in an angry, uncontrolled way.

  gabble: To talk rapidly, making inarticulate sounds.

  (谈论) remark: To mention it or comment on it.

  (陈述) state: To say, express or put into words, esp. formally. He stated his view.

  (讲述) narrate: To tell formally in writing or speech or describe something in order with intonation. He narrated his adventure in the forest.

  (详述) relate: To tell formally in details, to give an account of. He related his experiences.

  (讲演) address: To say in speech or writing to a person or group.

  tell: To let people know about something.

  talk: To say things to someone.

  converse: To talk formally. The scholars are conversing with each other on linguistics.

  chat: To talk in a friendly, familiar, informal manner. The two friends sat in a corner and chatted.

  chatter: To talk continuously rapidly about small things. The schoolgirls went along chattering.

  whisper: To talk in a low voice. She whispered me not to talk so loudly.

  murmur: To make a soft sound, esp. to speak or say in a quiet voice. He often murmurs to himself.

  (闲谈) gossip: To talk about the details of other people's actions and private lives which may not correct or proper. That woman is very fond of gossiping about others.

  stammer: To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of excitement, embarrassment.

  stutter: To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of inherent speech defect.

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