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1997年6月大学英语六级试题

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Part I Listening comprehension (20 minutes)

Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)

Direction : There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is following by some questions or unfinished statements - For each of them there are four choices marked A ) , B ) , C) and D ) . You should decide on the best choice and mark the and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre .

Question 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

It is said that the public and Congressional concern about deceptive packaging rumpus started because Senator Hart discovered that the boxes of cereals consumed by him, Mrs. Hart, and their children were becoming higher and narrower, with a decline of net weight from 12 to 10. 5 ounces, without any reduction in price. There were still twelve biscuits, but they had been reduced in size. Later, the Senator rightly complained of a store-bought pie in a handsomely illustrated box that pictured, in a single slice, almost as many cherries as there were in the whole pie.

The manufacturer who increases the unit price of his product by changing his package size to lower the quantity delivered can, without undue hardship, put his product into boxes, bags, and tins that will contain even 4-ounce, 8-ounce, one-pound,

Two-pound quantities of breakfast foods, cake mixes, etc. A study of drugstore and supermarket shelves will convince any observer that all possible size and shapes of boxes, jars, bottles, and tins are in use at the same time and, as the package journals show, week by week, there is never any hesitation in introducing a new size. and shape of box or bottle when it aids in product differentiation. The producers of packaged products argue strongly against changing sizes of packages to contain even weights and volumes, but no one in the trade comments unfavorably on the huge costs incurred by endless changes of package sizes, materials, shape, art work, and net weights that are used for improving a product's market position.

When a packaging expert explained that he was able to multiply the price of hard sweets by 2.5, from I dollar to 2.50 dollars by changing to a fancy jar, or that he had made a 5-ounce bottle look as though it held 8 ounces, he was in effect telling the public that packaging can be a very expensive luxury. It evidently does come high, when an average family pays about 200 dollars a year for bottles, cans, boxes, jars and other containers, most of which can' t be used anything but stuffing the garbage can .

21 . What started the public and Congressional concern about deceptive packaging rumpus?

A) Consumers' complaints about the changes in the package size.

B) Expensive packaging for poor quality products.

C) A senator's discovery of the tricks in packaging.

D) The rise in the unit price for many products.

22. The word "undue" (Para. 2) means "__________".

A) improper B)adequate C)unexpected D)excessive

23. Consumers are concerned about the changes in the package size, mainly because __________.

A) they hate to see any changes in things they are familiar with

B) they unit price for a product often rises as a result

C) they have to pay for the cost of changing package sizes

D) this entails an increase in the cost of packaging

24. According to this passage, various types of packaging come into existence to __________.

A) meet the needs of consumers

B) suit all kinds of products

C) enhance the market position of products

D) introduce new products

25. The author is critical mainly of _________.

A) dishonest packaging

B) inferior packaging

C) the changes in package size

D) exaggerated illustrations on packages

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:

If sustainable competitive advantage depends on work-force skills, American firms have a problem. Human-resource management is not traditionally seen as central to the competitive survival of the firm in United States. Skill acquisition is considered an individual responsibility. Labour is simply another factor of production to be hired-rented at the lowest possible cost-much as one buys raw materials or equipment.

The lack of importance attached to human-resource management can be seen in the corporate hierarchy. In an American firm the chief financial officer is almost always second in command. The post of head of human-resource management is usually a specialized job, off at the edge of the corporate hierarchy. The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chance to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO). By way of contrast, in Japan the head of human-resource management is central-usually the second most important executive, after the CEO, in the firm's hierarchy.

While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their work forces, in fact they invest less in the skills of their employees than do either Japanese or German firms. The money they do invest is also more highly concentrated on professional and managerial employees. And the limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

As a result, problems emerge when new breakthrough technologies arrive. If American workers, for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible manufacturing stations than workers in Germany (as they do), the effective cost of those stations is lower in Germany than it is in the United States. More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed. The result is as lower pace of technological change. And in the end the skills of the population affect the wages of the top half. If the bottom half can't effectively staff the processes that have to be operated, the management and professional jobs that to with these processes will disappear.

26. Which of the following applies to the management of human resources in American companies?

A) They hire people at the lowest cost regardless of their skills.

B) They see the gaining of skills as their employees' own business.

C) They attach more importance to workers than equipment.

D) They only hire skilled workers because of keen competition.

27. What is the position of the head of human-resource management in an American firm?

A) He is one of the most important executives in firms.

B) His post is likely to disappear when new technologies are introduced.

C) He is directly under the chief financial executives in the firms.

D) He has no say in making important decisions in the firm.

28. The money most American firms put in training mainly goes to ______.

A) workers who can operate new equipment

B) technological and managerial staff

C) workers who lack basic background skills

D) top executives

29. According to the passages, the decisive factor in maintaining a firm's competitive advantage is _________.

A) the introduction of new technologies

B) the improvement of worker's basic skills .

C) the rational composition of professional and managerial employees

D) the attachment of importance to the bottom half of the employees

30. What is the main idea of the passage?

A) American firms are different from Japanese and German firms in human-resource management.

B) Extensive retraining is indispensable to effective human-resource management.

C) The head of human-resource management must be in the central position in a firm's hierarchy.

D) The human-resource management strategies of American firms affect their competitive capacity.

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

The biographer has to dance between two shaky positions with respect to the subject . Too close a relation, and the writer may be objectivity. Not close enough, and the writer may lack the sympathy necessary to any effort to portray a mind, a soul-the quality of life. Who should write the biography of a family, for example? Because of their closeness to the subject, family members may have special information, but by the same token, they may not have the distance that would allow them to be fair. Similarly, a king' s servant might not be the best one to write a biography of that king. But a foreigner might not have the knowledge and sympathy necessary to write the king' s biography-not for a readership from within the kingdom, at any rate.

There is no ideal position for such a task. The biographer has to work with the position he or she has in the world, adjusting that position as necessary to deal with the subject. Every position has strengths and weaknesses: to thrive, a writer must try to become aware of these, evaluate them in terms of the subject, and select a position accordingly.

When their subjects are heroes or famous figures, biographies often reveal a democratic motive: they attempt to show that their subjects are only human, no better than anyone else. Other biographies are meant to change us, to invite us to become better than we are. The biographies of Jesus found in the Bible are in this class.

Biographers may claim that their account is the "authentic" one. In advancing this claim, they are helped if the biography is "authorized" by the subject, this presumably allows the biographer special access to private information. "Unauthorized" biographies also have their appeal, however, since they can suggest an independence of mind in the biographer. In book promotions, the "unauthorized" characterisation usually suggests the prospect of juicy gossip that the subject had hoped to suppress. A subject might have several biographies, even several "authentic" ones. We sense intuitively that no one is in a position to tell the story of a life, perhaps not even the subject, and this has been proved by .the history of biography.

31 . According to the author, an ideal biographer would be one who _______ .

A) knows the subject very well and yet maintains a proper distance from him .

B) is close to the subject and knows the techniques of biography writing

C) is independent and treats the subject with fairness and objectivity .

D) possesses special private information and is sympathetic toward the subject

32 . The author cites the biographies of Jesus in the Bible in order to show that _______.

A) the best biographies are meant to transform their readers

B) biographies are authentic accounts of their subjects' lives

C) the best biographies are the of heroes and famous figures

D) biographies can serve different purpose

33 . Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?

A) An authentic biography seldom appeals to its readers.

B) An authentic biography is one authorized by the subject.

C) No one can write a perfect biography.

D) Authorized biographies have a wider readership.

34 . An unauthorized biography is likely to attract more readers because ______.

A) it portrays the subject both faithfully and vividly

B) it contains interesting information about the subject's private life

C) it reveals a lot of accurate details unknown to outsiders

D) it usually gives a sympathetic description of the subject's character

35. In this passage, the author focuses on __________.

A) the difficulty of a biographer in finding the proper perspective to do his job

B) the secret of a biographer to win more readers

C) the techniques required of a biographer to write a food biography

D) the characteristics of different kinds of biographies .

Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:

Whether the eyes are "the windows of the soul" is debatable, that they are intensely important in interpersonal communication is a fact. During the first two months of a baby's life, the stimulus that produces a smile is a pair of eyes. The eyes need not be real: a mask with two dots will produce a smile. Significantly, a real human face with eyes then the face will not motivate a smile, nor will the sight of only one eye then the face is presented in profile. This attraction to eyes as opposed to the nose or mouth continues as the baby matures. In one study, when American four-year-olds were asked to draw people, 75 percent of them drew people with mouths , but 99 percent of them drew people with eyes. In Japan, however, where babies are carried on their mother's back, infants to not acquire as much attachment to eyes as they do in other cultures. As a result, Japanese adults make little use of the face either to encode or decode meaning. In fact, Argyle reveals that the "proper place to focus one's gaze during a conversation in Japan is on the neck of one's conversation partner."

The role of eye contact in a conversational exchange between two Americans is well defined: speakers make contact with the eyes of their listener for about one second, then glance away as they talk; in a few moments they re-establish eye contact with the listener or reassure themselves that their audience is still attentive, then shift their gaze away once more. Listeners, meanwhile, keep their eyes on the face of the speaker, allowing themselves-to glance away only briefly. It is important that they be looking at the speaker at the `precise moment when the speaker reestablishes eye contact: if they are not looking, the speaker assumes that they are disinterested and either will pause until eye contact is resumed or will terminate the conversation. Just how critical this eye maneuvering is to the maintenance of conversational flow becomes evident when two speakers are wearing dark glasses: there may be a sort of traffic jam of words caused by interruption, false starts, and unpredictable pauses.

36. The author is convinced that the eyes are_______ .

A) of extreme importance in expressing feelings and exchanging ideas

B) something through which one can see a person' s inner world

C) of considerable significance in making conversati6ns interesting

D) something the value of which is largely a matter of long debate

37 . Babies will not be stimulated to smile by a person _______.

A) whose front view is fully perceived

B) whose face is covered with a mask

C) whose face is seen from the side

D) whose face is free of any covering

38 . According to the passage, the Japanese fix their gaze on their conversation partner' s neck because _________.

A) they don't like to keep their eyes on the face of the speaker

B) they need not communicate through eye contact

C) they don't think it polite to have eye contact

D) they didn't have much opportunity to communicate through eye contact in babyhood

39 . According to the passage, a conversation between two Americans may break down due to _________.

A) one temporarily glancing away from the other

B) eye contact of more than one second

C) improperly-timed ceasing of eye contact

D) constant adjustment of eye contact

40. To keep a conversation flowing smoothly, it is better for the participants _______.

A) not to wear dark spectacles B) not to make any interruptions

C) not to glance away from each other D) not to make unpredictable pauses

Part III Vocabulary and Structure

Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this pert . For each sentence there are four choices marked A ) , B ) , C ) and D ) . Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence . Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre .

41 . By _______computation, he estimated that the repairs on the house would cost him a thousand dollars.

A) coarse B) rude C) crude D) rough

42 . Your story about the frog turning into a prince is _______nonsense.

A) sheer B) shear C) shield D) sheet

43 . I could see that my wife was ________ having that fur coat, whether I approved of it or not.

A) adequate for B) intent on C) short of D) deficient in

44 . The _______ runner can run 2 miles in fifteen minutes.

A) common B) usual C) average D) general

45 . One of his eyes was injured in an accident, but after a operation, he quickly recovered his sight.

A) delicate B) considerate C) precise D) sensitive

46 . As an excellent shooter, Peter practised aiming at both _______ targets and moving targets.

A) standing B) stationary C) still D) stable

47 . In American universities, classes are often arranged in more flexible _______ and many jobs on campus are reserved for students .

A) scales B) patterns C) grades D) ranks

48 . The insurance company paid him $10, 000 in _______ after his accident.

A) compensation B) installment C) substitution D) commission

49 . The political future of the president is now hanging by a _______.

A) thread B) cord C)string D) rope

50 . The statue would be perfect but for a few small _______ in its be.

A) mistakes B) weaknesses c) flaws D) errors

51 . Why should anyone want to read _______ of books by great authors when the real pleasure comes from reading the originals,

A) themes B) insights C) digests D) leaflets

52 . Parents have a legal _______ to ensure that their children are provided with efficient education suitable to their age.

A) impulse B) influence C) obligation D) sympathy

53 . Most nurses are women, but in the higher ranks of the medical profession women are in a _______.

A) scarcity B) minority C) minimum D) shortage

54 . David likes country life and has decided to _______ farming.

A) go in for B)go back on

C) go through with D) go along with .

55 . Jack was about to announce our plan but I _______ .

A) put him through B) turned him out

C) gave him up D) cut him short

56. I am sore I can _______ him into letting us stay in the h6tel for the night.

A) speak B) say C) talk D) tell

57. Last year, the crime rate in Chicago has sharply _______.

A) declined B) lessened C) descended D) slipped

58 . The republication of the pet' s most recent works will certainly _______ his national reputation.

A) magnify B) strengthen C) enlarge D) enhance

59 . Recently a number of cases have been reported of young children _______ a violent act previously seen on television.

A) modifying B) duplicating C) accelerating D) stimulating

60 . This kind of material can _______ heat and moisture.

A) delete B) `compel C) constrain D) repel

61 . Reading _______ the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours.

A) rectifies B) prolongs C) minimizes D) furnishes

62. If the fire alarm is sounded, all residents are requested to _______ in the courtyard.

A) assemble B) converge C) crowd D) accumulate

63 . The work in the office was _______ by a constant stream of visitors.

A) confused B) hampered C) reverend D) perplexed

64. The joys of travel, having long _______ the disabled, are opening up to virtually anyone who has the means.

A) omitted B) missed C) neglected D) discarded

65 . Fewer and fewer of today's workers expect to spend their working lives in the same field, _______ the same company.

A) all else B) much worse C) less likely D) let alone

66. When he finally emerged from the cave after thirty days, John was _______ pale.

A) enormously B) startlingly C) uniquely D) dramatically

67 . Thank you for applying for a position with our firm. We do not have any openings at this time, but we shall keep your application on _______ for two months.

A) pile B) segment C) sequence D) file

68. It will be safer to walk the streets because people will not need to carry large amounts of cash; virtually all financial _______ will be conducted by computer.

A) transactions B) transmissions C) transitions D) transformations

69. The of a cultural phenomenon is usually a logical consequence of some physical aspect in the life style of the people.

A) implementation B) manifestation C) demonstration D) expedition

70 . The new technological revolution in American newspapers has brought increase, a wider range of publications and an expansion of newspaper jobs.

A) manipulation B) reproduction C) circulation D) penetration

Part IV short Answer Questions (15 minutes)

Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements is the fewest possible word.

I once knew a dog named Newton who had a unique sense of humour. Whenever I tossed out a Frisbee for him to chase, he'd take off in hot pursuit but then seem to lose track of it. Moving back and forth only a yard of two from the toy, Newton would look all around, even up into the trees. He seemed genuinely puzzled. Finally, I'd give up and head into the field to help him out. But no sooner would I get within 10 ft. Of him than he would run invariably straight over to the Frisbee, grab it and start running like mad, looking over his shoulder with what looked suspiciously like a grin.

Just about every pet owner has a story like this and is eager to share it with anyone who will listen. On very short notice, TIME reporters cam up with 25 stories about what each is convinced is the smartest pet in the world. Among them: the cat who closes the door behind him when he goes into the bathroom; the cat who uses a toilet instead of a litter box... and flushes it afterward; the dog who goes wild when he sees his owner putting on blue jeans instead of a dress because jeans mean it is time to play; and the cat who used to wait patiently at the bus stop every day for a little girl, then walk her the six blocks home. And so on.

These behaviours are certainly clever, but what do they mean? Was Newton really deceiving? Can a cat really desire privacy in the toilet? In short, do household pets really have a mental and emotional life? Their owners think so, but until recently, animal-behaviour exports would have gone mad on hearing such a question. The worst sin in the worst sin in their moral vocabulary was anthropomorphism, projecting human traits onto animals. A dog or a cat might behave as if it were angry, lonely, sad, happy or confused, but that was only in the eye of the viewer. What was going on, they insisted was that the dog or cat had been conditioned, through a perhaps unintentional series of punishments and rewards, the behave certain way. The behaviour was a mechanical result of the training.

71. What did Newton seem puzzled about?

72. Why does the author say Newton had unique sense of humour?

73. What made it possible for the TIME reporters to come up with so many interesting stories about pets?

74. What belief about pet behaviour was unacceptable to experts of animal behaviour?

75. What is the explanation of animal-behaviour experts for the "clever"behaviour of pets?

Part V Writing (30 minutes)

Directions : For this part , you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic My View on Job-Hopping. You should write at least 120 words and you should abase your composition on the outline ( given in Chinese ) below :

1.有些人喜欢始终从事一种工作,因为 ...

2.有些人喜欢经常更换工作,因为...

3.我的看法

My View on Job-Hopping

参考答案

Part I (略)

Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)

21. C 22. D 23. B 24. C 25. A

26. B 27. D 28. B 29. B 30. D

31. A 32. D 33. C 34. B 35. A

36. A 37. C 38. D 39. C 40. A

Part III Vocabulary and Structure

41. D 42. A 43. B 44. C 45. A

46. C 47. B 48. A 49. A 50. C

51. C 52. C 53. B 54. A 55. D

56. C 57. A 58. D 59. B 60. D

61. D 62. A 63. B 64. C 65. D

66. B 67. D 68. A 69. B 70. C

Part IV Short Answer Question

71. Not knowing the Fribee's track.

72. Because Newton intended to deceive him.

73. That the owners want others to share their stories.

74. That animals have a mental and emotional life.

75. Mechanical result of training.

Part V Writing

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