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如何在不记忆的情况下学习

http://en.eol.cn  来源:  作者:  2009-10-12    

 

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  4. Through Visualization

  4. 通过可视化

  Another way to make ideas more concrete is simply to imagine them in a visual format. When I was learning computer programming, I often tried to connect the abstract concepts of variables, functions or polymorphism into more vivid, visual descriptions. If a variable becomes a jar or a function becomes a crazy pencil sharpener, you’re more likely to remember the relationship later.

  有其它简单的方法可以令知识变得更具体,那就是将它们想象出来成为一种可以看见的形式。当我学习电脑编程的时候,我就经常试图将抽象、概念性的变量、函数、多形性与更生动的视觉上的描述关联起来。如果一个变量变成一种罐头,或一个函数变成一个疯狂的卷笔刀的话,你会更有可能记忆知识之间的关系。

  If you are a non-visual learner, you can apply the same strategy to your other senses. It may be more meaningful for you if you mentally attach sounds or sensations to the ideas you’re trying to store.

  如果你不是视觉类型的学习者,你可以将这种策略应用到你其它的五感上去。如果你心理上更接近于使用听觉或触觉来记忆知识,这种策略对你而言可能会更有意义。

  5. Can You Explain it To a Five-Year Old?

  5. 你能将之解释给5岁的小孩听吗?

  Another trick to connect ideas together is to connect a very difficult idea, to something you understand easily. If you had to teach whatever subject you’re learning right now to a five-year old, what would you do?

  其它连结知识的方法是将非常难以理解的知识与那些你明白易懂的知识关联起来。现在,如果你不得不将你正在学习的科目教给一个五岁小孩,你会怎么办?

  This exercise forces you to simplify. Instead of dealing in abstracts you now have to deal in concretes. I’m not suggesting you can teach senior level chemistry courses to a first-grader. However, if you get in the habit of simplifying things for yourself, it will be easier for you to understand it yourself. Teaching something is often the best way to learn it.

  这个练习迫使你去简化。你只好以处理具象的事物,取代处理抽象的事物。我不是说,你有能力去教会一个一年级的小孩毕业班的化学课程。无论如何,如果你养成了简化事物的习惯,你会更容易的了解这些事物。教往往是最好的学习方法。

  I once heard a story about a prominent university professor who was writing a paper in his field. Instead of using the normal academic speak, he decided to simplify the findings and terms of the article as much as possible. His goal was that, by doing this, the article might be accessible to journalists who don’t have academic training.

  我曾经听说一个故事,说的是一个出名大学里,正在写论文的教授。他决定尽可能使论文里的结论与学术用语简单明了,而不是用以正常的学院的语调。他的目的是,通过这样的努力,文章更易于接受,对于那些未进行过学院系统训练的新闻记者而言。

  To his surprise, however, his article became one of the most cited works within his field, from other academics. It appears that the extra simplification of concepts was helpful not only to journalists, but other researchers with doctorates in his field. The lesson: we often underestimate the simplification required.

  令他惊讶的是,他的论文开始成为在他的学术领域里面被引用的次数最多的论文之一。看起来简单易懂的概念不仅仅是对新闻记者有助益,于其他学术领域的学者来说也一样。总结:你经常低估了别人对简单性的需求。

  When you juggle ideas only at an abstract level, you make fewer connections. It’s like trying to weave a basket using two ten-foot pole rods, while the basket is suspended off your roof. Make connections and bring the basket down to earth so you can grab it with your hands and make more tangible connections.

  当你仅仅在抽象的层面上耍弄知识,你只能构建很少的知识连结。这就像是在用来两个十英尺的编织棒去编织悬吊在屋子上的篮子一样。构建联系,就像将篮子降到地面的高,那样你能用手抓住它,这样你就够构建更多有形的知识连结。

  6. Childhood Creativity Meets University Courses

  6. 童心创造力与大学课程相会

  I’m suggesting you bring back the same crayon-box imagination you had when you were five. Back then, nobody told you it was incorrect to link weird and bizarre combinations of ideas together, you did in naturally. However, at some point the system encouraged you to conform, so you started asking what the correct answer was, rather than the most interesting answer.

  我建议你带上想象中你五岁时使用的蜡笔盒。然后想象回到童年,那时候没人会告诉你,你那些古怪、荒诞的想法组合在一起是不对的,你非常自然的就这样子去做了。不管怎样,某些时候你所身处的体制鼓励你去确认,所以你开始去询问正确的答案是什么,而不再去问哪些答案最有趣。

  Don’t give up your critical thinking, just enhance it by allowing yourself to explore ideas more thoroughly before you decide what they look like. What would happen if you inserted a minus sign in the middle of your physics equation? If you had to explain the formula in terms of real world objects, how would you do it?

  不要放弃你的批判性思维,要不断的提高它——在你对某一事物下结论之前,允许自己更彻底的探究这一事物。如果你在你的物理方程式的中间插入一个减号,那将会发生什么?如果你不得不去解释现实世界中发生的现象所显现的物理规则,你会怎么办?

  These aren’t time-wasting exercises, they are keys to better understanding. The smartest people I’ve encountered are often the people with the easiest time generating creative descriptions of whatever they need to learn. If you didn’t have to review every idea 5-10 times before learning it, then a creative approach would probably save you time, rather than waste it.

  这些练习不会浪费时间,而是通往更深层次理解的钥匙。我曾遇见过的那些最聪明的人,只要他们需要学习,他们经常都是可以在任何时间里面中最容易产生创造性描述的。如果你在学习之前,不必每天都回顾上5-10遍,那么创造性的方法可以省下你的时间,而不是浪费掉。

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