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如何在不记忆的情况下学习

http://en.eol.cn  来源:  作者:  2009-10-12    

 

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  7. With a Group

  7. 在小组中学习

  Most memorization is a solo pursuit. But connecting ideas doesn’t have to be. If you get several people together and work to try to explain a subject to each other, you get the benefit of several brains forming connections to the same topic. This is applying the wisdom of brainstorming to help you learn faster.

  大多数的记忆活动是单独一个人在追求。不过关联知识这种就不必如此。如果你和一些人一起工作学习,你们可以尝试在相互之间解释一下某一个科目,那么你将在数个大脑里面形成的关于同一主题的知识连结中获益。这是运用头脑风暴的智慧,帮学得更快。

  As with brainstorming, accuracy isn’t as important as volume. You aren’t trying to remember every specific connection you make, so it doesn’t matter if they aren’t perfect. You are, however, trying to better understand and remember the subject itself, so group exercises where you share ideas are great for this purpose.

  和头脑风暴一样,精度没有数量重要。你不必设法记忆每个你所构建的知识连结,所以即使这些知识连结并不完美,也不打紧。不管怎样,你都是想方设法地去了解与记忆这些知识,因此分享想法的小组,会更好的服务于你这个目的。

  The 70% Rule for Self-Education

  自我教育的 70% 原则

  Whenever I try to learn anything on my own, I strive to maintain a 70% rule. This means I try to achieve 70% understanding and memory of a set of ideas before moving forward. Even though I’m missing 30% of the information, I can cover ground more quickly. Besides, I can always come back to reacquaint myself with something that was missed in the first pass.

  无论何时,当我尝试自己去学习某些东西的时候,我都一直努力的坚持70%的原则。这意味着,在继续深入学习某个知识之前,我会设法达到70%的明白程度与记忆程度。就算我漏掉了30%的信息,但我能更迅速的回想起来。此外,我还总是重新熟悉那些我从一开始就漏掉的部分。

  The reason this approach works is that it takes as much effort to learn the last 20% of information as it does to learn the first 80%. By moving forward, you can ensure you’re focusing your learning efforts on what really matters, and not the minute details of a subject.

  采用这样的方式,理由是学习剩余的20%的知识和开始学习80%的知识,所用的努力是一样的。通过深入探究,你能保证你一直都将你的努力集中在真正有关系的地方,而不是科目的那些琐碎的细节上。

  This approach isn’t practiced in school because, for most purposes 70% is a C+ or a B. In some programs, 70% memory could qualify as an F. So following this rule to the letter probably wouldn’t result in an exceptional GPA.

  学校里面不采取这种方式是因为,在大多数的科目里面,70%仅仅是一个C=或B。在某些科目里面,70%甚至被认为是一个F。所以按这个规则来做的话,未必能在学年成绩单上取得值得期待的回报。

  However, you can modify this rule when creating connections between ideas. Understand something to 70% proficiency, then dive deeper and understand the ideas around it. Here are some examples:

  然而,当你在创建知识之间的连结的时候,你可以修改这个规则。精熟某些知识达到70%的水平,然后潜得更深,并了解这个知识的外围。这里有一些例子:

  * Understand a formula 70%, and then dive into its proof.

  * Learn a philosophical argument to 70%, and then examine the counterarguments.

  * Read to understand a management theory 70%, then view it’s applications.

  * Remember 70% of the words of a new language, then practice using them in dialog.

  *熟悉一个方程到70%的程度,然后去运用。

  *学习一个哲学命题到70%的程度,然后尝试去解释其中的辩论。

  *明白一个管理理论到70%的程度,然后阅览它的应用情况。

  *记下一个新语言中的70%的单词,然后在对话中练习它。

  If you use this approach to study, you can start building those connections earlier. Instead of waiting until you have something memorized before you start connecting ideas, you start exploring immediately. This reduces the burden of memorization and helps you learn faster.

  如果你用这种方法来学习,你可以更早的构建知识的连结点。而不是等到你有点印象之后才开始将知识关联起来,你可以在探索中立马开始。这样可以减少你的记忆量,帮助你更快的学习。

  When is Memorization Necessary?

  什么时候记忆是必需的?

  Like all rules, the practice of connecting ideas has places where it doesn’t work terribly well in. When you need to remember bulk information, with no particular meaning, sometimes rote memorization is the best way to go. Human brains are meaning-makers, and learning through connections is an approach built off that function. So when you have to understand copious amounts of information that have no logical relationship, you may struggle to form connections.

  就如所有规则一样,关联知识,不是那么容易就能精通。当你必须去记忆大量的知识,但它们没有什么特别的意义,在这种时候,死记硬背是最好的方式。人类的大脑是一个「意义产生机」,通过学习构建知识连结的方式,来关闭这个功能。所以当你要学习大量、丰富而缺乏逻辑关系的知识的时候,你可能难以将知识关联起来。

  I hesitate to say this, however, because 95% of information isn’t meaningless, otherwise you wouldn’t bother learning it. There is a pattern, and if you invest some time in finding it, you greatly increase the chances it will stick to the inside of your skull.

  我犹豫着要不要说这个,但是,因为95%的知识并不是无意义的,否则你根本就不用去学习。有一种模式,如果你将你的时间投入其中,那将增大在脑袋里保留的机会。

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