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GMAT阅读文章结构及题型注意事项

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  GMAT阅读的文章来源为学术期刊文章的改写。这些论文的写作是有严格的格式规范的,表意清晰的文章一定是层次清晰、中心单一而明确的。文章的每个段落都会围绕着一个意思来展开,最终段落加在一起共同表达出文章的中心。这样少则几页,多则几十页的文章,要改写成一篇350词以内且内在逻辑依然清晰的短文,改写方式无非有二:节选(取文章中的一部分意思)和缩写(将一段或多段文章的意思概括成一句话来表达)。所以,不管以那种方式来进行改写,文章的原有逻辑结构都不会受到任何破坏。因此,过分纠结于句子字面的意思而看不到文章的宏观框架,会对文章的理解照成极大的影响。我们以下边这篇文章为例:

  Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize a new technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing followers to adapt to a standard or invest in an unproven alternative. Today, however, the largest payoffs may go to companies that lead in developing integrated approaches for successful mass production and distribution.

  Producers of the Beta format for videocassette recorders (VCRs), for example, were first to develop the VCR commercially in 1975, but producers of the rival VHS (Video Home System) format proved to be more successful at forming strategic alliances with other producers and distributors to manufacture and market their VCR format. Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCR distribution, Beta producers were reluctant to form such alliances and eventually lost ground to VHS in the competition for the global VCR market.

  Despite Beta’s substantial technological head start and the fact that VHS was neither technically better nor cheaper than Beta, developers of VHS quickly turned a slight early lead in sales into a dominant position. Strategic alignments with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS advantage. The perception among consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in VHS format further expanded VHS’s share of the market. By the end of the 1980s, Beta was no longer in production.

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